Fiber Optic Sensors for Detection of Sodium Plating in Sodium-Ion Batteries

April 20, 2022

Optical fiber sensors integrated into sodium-ion batteries could provide a battery management system (BMS) with information to identify early warning signs of plating, preventing catastrophic failure and maintaining safe operation during fast charging. This work shows the possibility of directly detecting plating of sodium metal in electrochemical cells by means of operando fiber optic evanescent wave (FOEW) spectroscopy. The results include measurements with FOEW sensors on bare copper substrates as well as on hard carbon anodes during operation in both half- and full-cell configurations. Full cells using hard carbon anodes and Prussian white cathodes with high areal capacities (>1.5 mAh cm–2) and integrated FOEW sensors are shown to cycle well in pouch cells. The results also include measurements to demonstrate plating on hard carbon during sodiation at different rates.


Jonas Hedman, Ronnie Mogensen, Reza Younesi, and Fredrik Björefors

Published in

ACS Applied Energy Materials


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